WorldRemitAds

Notes 

[1] P. Hoyle, ‘Somaliland: Passing the Statehood Test?’, IBRU Boundary & Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2000), pp.80-91:81. Note should be taken that the boundary between Somalia and Ethiopia has never been demarcated or agreed on by the two countries.

[2] M. E. Page, and P. Sonnenburg, Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural and Political Encyclopedia, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2003), p.544.

WorldRemitAds

[3] Federal Research Division, Somalia a Country Study, (Washington: Library of Congress, 2004), p. 72.

[4] M. Lacey, “The Signs Say Somaliland but the World Says Somalia’’ in Hargeysa Journal. Retrieved January 16th, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/05/world/africa/05somaliland.html

[5] P. Malanczuk, and M. B., Akehurst, Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, (London: Routledge, 1997), pp.80-85:83.

[6] J. Brunnée, et al, International Law, Chiefly as Interpreted in Canada, (Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publication, 2006), pp.19-23:20.

[7] Ibid ., p.20.

[8] L. Erades, and Instituut, T. M. C. A., Essays on International & Comparative Law in Honor of Judge Erades, (The Hague: Brill Archive, 1983), pp.235-238:237.

[9] L. S. Kaplan, Entangling Alliances With None: American Foreign Policy in the Age of Jefferson, (Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1987), p.33.

[10] M. N. Shaw, International Law, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p.383.

[11] Ibid., p.383.

[12] T. Evans, Human Rights Fifty Years On: A Reappraisal, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), p.107.

[13] Ibid., p.107.

[14] S. Cross, Global Security Beyond the Millennium: American and Russian Perspectives, (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999), p.197.

[15] Ibid., pp.197-198.

[16] D. J. Bederman, The Spirit of International Law, (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002), p.82.

[17] Ibid., p.83.

[18] P. C. Jessup, ‘The Estrada Doctrine’, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 25, NO. 4, (1931), pp.719-723:720.

[19] P. Kolstø, ‘The Sustainability and Future of Unrecognized and Quasi-states’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 43, No. 6, (2006), pp.723-740: 723.

[20] Ibid., p.724.

[21] Ibid. , p.726.

[22] B. A. Peters, Managing Diversity in Intergovernmental Organizations, (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008), p.26.

[23] United Nations Department of Public Information, Can a new State or Government be recognized by the UN?, Retrieved March 14th, 2011 from http://www.un.org/geninfo/faq/factsheets/memberstate.pdf.

[24] D. Rothwell, et al, International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives, (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2011), p.240.

[25] S. K. Verma, An Introduction to Public International Law, (New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2004), p.98.

[26] Ibid., p.98.

[27] B. Milton-Edwards, Islam and Politics in the Contemporary World, (Cambridge: Polity Press Ltd., 2004), p.34.

[28] C. Warbrick, ‘Recognition of States’, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 2, (1992), pp.473-482:476.

[29] R. Weitz, Global Security Watch-Russia: A Reference Handbook, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010), p.154.

[30] O. S. Kamanu, ‘Secession and the Right of Self-Determination: An O.A.U Dilemma’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3, (1974), pp.355-376:355.

[31] K. Sturman, ‘New Norms, Old Boundaries: The African Union’s Approach to Secession and State Sovereignty’, in A. Pavković & P. Radan (ed), On the Way to Statehood: Secession and Globalization, (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2008), pp.67-84:75.

[32] Ibid., pp.67-84:75.

[33] A. A. Mazrui, ‘The Bondage of Boundaries’, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, (1994), pp.60-63:60.

[34] D. Dehéz, ‘Crisis Region Eastern Africa: The Intergovernmental Authority on Development in an Environment of Latent Conflict’, in B. Gebrewold-Tochalo (ed), Africa and Fortress Europe: Threats and Opportunities, (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2007), pp.21-36:30.

[35] J. Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World, Volume 4 S-Z, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002), p.809.

[36] Ibid., p.810.

[37] Icon Group International, Ethiopia: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases, (San Diego: ICON Group International, Inc., 2008), p.120.

[38] P. Woodward, Horn of Africa: State Politics and International Relations, (London: British Academic Press, 1996), p.86.

[39] G. Schlee, How Enemies are Made: Towards a Theory of Ethnic and Religious Conflicts, (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2008), p.165.

[40] Human Rights Watch, & C. Albin-Lackey, “Hostages to Peace”: Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland, (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2009), p.51.

[41] B. Gebrewold, & B. Gebrewold-Tochalo, Anatomy of Violence: Understanding the Systems of Conflict and Violence in Africa, (Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009), p.43.

[42] S. D. Kaplan, Fixing Fragile States: A New Paradigm for Development, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008), p.125.

[43] Ibid., p.125.

[44] These also includes policy makers in respective foreign affairs ministries of respective governments.

[45] C. H. Ofuho, ‘Security Concerns in the Horn of Africa,’ in M. Mwagiru (ed), African Regional Security in the Age of Globalization, (Nairobi: Henrich Böll Foundation, 2004), p.8.

[46] R. H. Wagner, War and the State: The Theory of International Politics, (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2007), p.17.

[47] R. H. Jackson, & G. Sørensen, Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), p.110.

[48] Ibid., p.111.

[49] A. A. Mohamoud, State Collapse and Post-conflict Development in Africa: the Case of Somalia, (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2006), p.38.

[50] Ibid., p.38

[51] G. K. Kieh, ‘The Somali Civil War’, in G. K. Kieh, & I. R. Mukenge, (ed), Zones of Conflict in Africa: Theories and Cases, (London: Praeger Publishers, 2002), pp.123-138:125.

[52] Ibid., p.125.

[53] N. J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: Issues, History, and Bibliography, (New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2002), p.30.

[54] Ibid., p.30.

[55] A. McKenna, The History of Central and Eastern Africa, (New York: Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011), p.159.

[56] N. J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: Issues, History, and Bibliography, op cit, p.30.

[57] S. C. Easton, The Twilight of European Colonialism: A Political Analysis, (London: Bradford and Dickens, 1961), p.288.

[58] M. E. Page, Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2003), p.544.

[59] R. M. Juang & N. Morrissette, Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2008), p.1016.

[60] M. E. Page, Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia, op cit, p.544.

[61] R. M. Juang & N. Morrissette, Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, op cit, p.1016.

[62] Federal Research Division, Somalia a Country Study, (Washington: Library of Congress, 1993), p.230.

[63] Ibid., p.230.

[64] Ibid., p.232.

[65] J. Stokes, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1, (New York: Infobase Publishing, Inc., 2009), p.640.

[66] Ibid., p.640.

[67] Y. G-M. Lulat, A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis, (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), p.366.

[68] M. Dumper & B.E. Stanley, Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia, (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2007), p.92.

[69] A. D. Roberts, & R.A. Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 7, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p.727.

[70] Ibid., p.727.

[71] Europa Publications, The Europa World Year Book 2004, (London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2004), p.3822.

[72] Ibid., p.3822.

[73] P. Contini, The Somali Republic: An Experiment in Legal Integration, (London: Frank Cass, 1969), p.5.

[74] The Legislative Council had been established by the Somaliland (Constitutional) Order in Council, 1955, which was made on February 10, 1955 but came into force more than two years later, on April 15, 1957.

[75] Ibid., p.5.

[76] The Italian Somaliland became independent on 1st July 1960.

[77] B. V. Rao, World History from Early Times to AD 2000, (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 2007), p.359.

[78] D. Seddon, & D. Seddon-Daines, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa, (London: Routledge, 2005), p.475.

[79] P. J. M. McEwan, & R. B. Sutcliffe, The Study of Africa, (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd, 1965), p.223.

[80] J. Hatch, A History of Post-War Africa, (Worcester: André Deutsch Ltd., 1965), p.350.

[81] D. Seddon, & D. Seddon-Daines, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa, op cit, p.475.

[82] M. D. Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2001), p.26.

[83] D. Seddon, & D. Seddon-Daines, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa, op cit, p. 475.

[84] P. J. Schraeder, ‘From Irredentism to Secession: The Decline of Pan-Somali,’ in L.W. Barrington (ed), After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2006), pp.107-140:116.

[85] Ibid., p. 117.

[86] A. Bariagaber, Conflict and the Refugee Experience: Flight, Exile, and Repatriation in the Horn of Africa, (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2006), p.30.

[87] M. D. Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, op cit, p.26.

[88] Ibid., p.27.

[89] Ibid., p.28.

[90] von Bogdandy, et al, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005), p.521.

[91] Ibid., p.521.

[92] A. Hironaka, Never-Ending Wars: The International Community, Weak States, and the Perpetuation of Civil War, (Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005), p.65.

[93] M. D. Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, op cit, p.28.

[94] D. Seddon, & D. Seddon-Daines, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa, op cit, p.475.

[95] J. R. Thackrah, The Routledge Companion to Military Conflict Since 1945, (New York: Routledge, 2009), p.228.

[96] P. J. Schraeder, ‘From Irredentism to Secession: The Decline of Pan-Somali,’ in L.W. Barrington (ed), After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, op cit, p.117.

[97] P. Contini, The Somali Republic: An Experiment in Legal Integration, op cit, p.23.

[98] G. P. Hastedt, Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, (New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004), p.442.

[99] Ibid., p.442.

[100] M. Doornbos & J. Markakis, ‘Society and State in Crisis: What Went Wrong in Somalia?’, in M. A. R. M. Salih & L. Wohlgemuth (ed), Crisis Management and the Politics of Reconciliation in Somalia: Statements from the Uppsala Forum, 17-19 January 1994, (Uppsala, Reprocentralen HSC, 1994), pp.12-18:13.

[101] M. D. Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, op cit, p.28.

[102] Ibid., p.29.

[103] J. A. Mubarak, From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart, (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996), p.10.

[104] D. D. Laitin, ‘The Political Economy of Military Rule in Somalia’, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3, (1976), pp.449-468.

[105] D. K. Orwa, ‘Change & Continuity in Kenya’s Foreign Policy from Kenyatta to Moi’, in W.O. Oyugi, (ed), Politics and Administration in East Africa, (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1994), pp.297-330:305.

[106] J. A. Mubarak, From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart, op cit, p.11.

[107] D. Seddon, & D. Seddon-Daines, A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa, op cit, op cit, p.475.

[108] J. A. Mubarak, From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart, op cit, p.13.

[109] Ibid., p.13.

[110] C. J. Nolan, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), p.1548.

[111] Ibid., p.1548.

[112] R. Lapidoth-Eschelbacher, International Straits of the World: The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, (London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982), p.88.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.