Glossary of acronyms, words, and phrases

AAP Africa Action Plan

(Turkish) Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party)

ATQ Anti-Terror Quartet
AU African Union
BRI Belt and Road Initiative
DP World Dubai Ports World
EPRDF Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
GCC Gulf Cooperation Council
GERD Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
IGAD Intergovernmental Authority on Development
Imam-Hatip (Turkish) public schools
MbS Mohammed bin Salman
ODA Official Development Assistance
QIA Qatar Investment Authority
QFFD Qatari Fund for Development
QNB Qatar National Bank
RSF Rapid Support Forces
TİKA Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency
TPLF Tigray People’s Liberation Front
TRT Turkish Radio and Television
UAE United Arab Emirates

(Turkish) Yurtdışı Türkler ve Akraba Topluluklar Başkanlığı (Presidency for Turks Abroad and Related Communities)


Abdi, Rashid. ‘A Dangerous Gulf in the Horn: How the Inter-Arab Crisis is Fueling Regional Tensions’. Commentary. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 3 August 2017. (


Abdirahman, Ali. ‘Turkey’s Foray into Africa: A New Humanitarian Power?’. Insight Turkey 13/4 (2013): 65–73.

Abdullah, Luqman. ‘يتارامإلا عيبطتلا »رامث« ىلوأ …ىرطقس’, [Socotra: First Fruit of Emirati Normalization]’. Al-Akhbar. 5 September 2020. (

Africa Intelligence. ‘Lootah Group of Companies Still in Difficulty’. 2 September 2016. (,108179463-bre)

[The Alliance of the  ’رمحألارحبلا نيمأتل »يديدح عرد .ةئطاشملا 8ـلا لودلا فلاحتAhtef, Ahmed. ‘

Eight Littoral States: An Iron Shield to Secure the Red Sea]’. CNN Arabic. 6 January 2020. (

Akpınar, Pınar. ‘Turkey’s Peacebuilding in Somalia: The Limits of Humanitarian Diplomacy’. Turkish Studies 14/4 (2014): 735–757.

Al-Arabiya. ‘ضارتقالا ىلع انتردقب ًاررض قحلي يتوبيج عم عازنلا :يبد ئناوم’ [Dubai Ports: The Dispute with Djibouti is Damaging Our Ability to Borrow]’. 20 May 2020. (https://يتوبيج-عم-عازنلا-يبد-ئناومضارتقالا-ىلع-انتردقب-اررض-قحلي)

Al-Arabiya English. ‘Saudi Company to Invest in Sudan Agriculture’. 5 January 2014. (

Aldardari, Sima. ‘The Politics of Gulf Aid to Sudan’. Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington (blog). 22 September 2020. (

Al-Etihad. 11 January 2020. («لودلافلاحت


Al-Jazeera. ‘US removes Sudan from “state sponsors of terror” list: Embassy’. 14 December 2020. (

Allo, Awol. ‘Ethiopia: Exploiting the Gulf’s scramble for the Horn of Africa’. African Arguments. 13 August 2018. (

Al-Mezaini, Khalid S and Jean-Marc Rickli. The Small Gulf States: Foreign and Security Policies before and after the Arab Spring. London: Routledge, 2017.

Altunisik, Meliha Benli. ‘Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: The AKP Model’. CMI Brief. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2019.

Aluminium International Today. ‘Ethiopia: $50 Million Aluminium Plant’. 24 September 2014. (

Aluwaisheg, Abdel Aziz. ‘Council of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to Play Critical Role’. Arab News. 13 January 2020. (

Al-Zayed, Saleh. ‘Kattan: “Council of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden is Strategic Necessity”’. Asharq Al-Awsat. 9 January 2020. (

Angey, Gabrielle. ‘The Gülen Movement and the Transfer of a Political Conflict from Turkey to Senegal’. Politics, Religion & Ideology 19/1 (2018): 53–68.

Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington. ‘Competition or Cooperation: The Horn of Africa and Broader Red Sea Basin at a Crossroads’. Youtube, 10 September 2020. ( ‘UAE’s Rotana Unveils New Hotels in UAE, Iran, Tanzania, Sudan’. 4 May 2014. (

Arab News. ‘Saudi Naval Forces Prepare for Red Wave 1’. 27 December 2018. (

Aras, Bülent. ‘Medical Humanitarianism of Turkey’s NGOS: A “Turkish Way”?’. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 42/4 (2017): 183–195.

Archus, Dorian. ‘Seven Red Sea Countries Attend Red Wave-2 Exercise Hosted by Saudi Arabia’. Naval News (blog). 22 September 2019. (

Ardemagni, Eleonora. ‘Rebuilding Yemen’s Maritime Forces Hobbled by Internal and External Rivalries’. Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington (blog). 6 August 2020.

Bagnetto, Laura Angela. ‘New Port Projects in Red Sea Corridor for Sudan, Somaliland as Arab Backers Jostle for Position’. RFI. 6 April 2018. (

Baird, Theodore. ‘The geopolitics of Turkey’s ‘humanitarian diplomacy’ in Somalia: a critique. Review of African Political Economy 43/149 (2016): 470–477.

Barakat, Sultan. ‘Priorities and challenges of Qatar’s Humanitarian Diplomacy’. CMI Brief no. 2019: 07. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2019. (

—. ‘Qatari Mediation: Between Ambition and Achievements’. Doha: Brookings Doha Centre, 12 November 2014.

Barakat, Sultan and Sansom Milton. ‘Why Did Qatar Leave the Djibouti–Eritrea Border?’. Al-Jazeera. 18 June 2017. (

Brookings Institution. ‘Red Sea Rivalries: The Gulf, the Horn, and the New Geopolitics of the Red Sea’. Youtube. 19 April 2019. (

Brown, Will and Zecharias Zelalem. ‘International Condemnation Rains down on Saudi Arabia after Telegraph Investigation into Hellish Detention Centres’. The Telegraph. 1 September 2020. (

Cafiero, Giorgio. ‘Sudan gets $2.2B for joining Saudi Arabia, Qatar in Yemen war’. Al-Monitor. 23 November 2015. (

Calabrese, John. ‘China’s Maritime Silk Road and the Middle East: Tacking Against the Wind’. Middle East Institute (blog). 19 May 2020. (

Cannon, Brendon J. ‘Turkey in Africa: Lessons in Political Economy’. Florya Chronicles of Political Economy 3/1 (2017): 93–110.

—. ‘Deconstructing Turkey’s Efforts in Somalia’. Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies 16/14 (2016): 98–123.

— and Federico Donelli. ‘Asymmetric alliances and high polarity: evaluating regional security complexes in the Middle East and Horn of Africa’. Third World Quarterly 41/3 (2020): 505–524.

—. ‘Turkey’s Involvement in the Release of Silvia Romano in Somalia’. ISPI Commentary. Milan: Italian Institute for International Political Studies, 26 May 2020.

Çelik, Nihat and Emre İşeri. ‘Islamically oriented humanitarian NGOs in Turkey: AKP foreign policy parallelism’. Turkish Studies 17/3 (2016): 429–448.

Cemalettin, Haşimi. ‘Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy and Development Cooperation’. Insight Turkey 16/1 (2014): 127–145.

Cevik, Senem. ‘The African Frontier in Humanitarian and Development Work’. Los Angeles: USC Center on Public Diplomacy, 2014.

Chatterjee, Pratap. ‘Middle Eastern Investors “Grab” Sudan Farmland’. Corpwatch. 30 April 2012. (

Dal, Emel Parlar, Ali Murat Kursun and Hakan Mehmetclk. ‘Assessing the Role of Trade in the Formation of Turkey’s Civilian Power in Africa’. Perceptions—Journal of International Affairs 23/1 (2018): 63–95.

— and Samiratou Dipama. ‘Assessing the Turkish “Trading State” in Sub-Saharan Africa’. In Turkey’s Political Economy in the 21st Century, edited by Emel Parlar Dal, 239–270. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Davidson, C. ‘The UAE, Qatar, and the Question of Political Islam’. In Divided Gulf: Anatomy of a Crisis, edited by A Kreig, 71–90. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Dickinson, Elizabeth. Comment during event. Red Sea Rivalries: Middle East Competition in the Horn of Africa. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 20 September 2019. (

Donelli, Federico. Turkey in Africa. Turkey’s Strategic Involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: I.B. Tauris. (2021)

—. ‘Determinants of Middle East states involvement in the Horn of Africa’. In Africa and the Middle East: Beyond the Divides. POMEPS Studies 40, 50–53. Washington, DC and New York: Project on Middle East Political Science, George Washington University and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, June 2020.

—. ‘Strategy, Opportunity and Requirement: Qatar in the Horn of Africa before and after the GCC Crisis’. Unpublished manuscript.

—. ‘The Gülen Movement in Africa: From Turkish Transnational Asset to Anti-State Lobby’. Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 13/1 (2019): 67–80.

—. ‘Persuading through Culture, Values, and Ideas. The Case of Turkey’s Cultural Diplomacy’. Insight Turkey 21/3 (2019): 113–134.

—. ‘The Ankara consensus: the significance of Turkey’s engagement in sub-Saharan Africa’. Global Change, Peace & Security 30/1 (2018): 57–76.

—. ‘A hybrid actor in the Horn of Africa. An analysis of Turkey’s involvement in Somalia’. In The Horn of Africa since the 1960s. Local and International Politics Intertwined, edited by Aleksi Ylönen and Jan Záhořík, 158–170. London: Routledge, 2017.

—. ‘Features, Aims and Limits of Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy’. Central European Journal of International and Security Studies 11/3 (2017): 59–83.

—. ‘Turkey’s presence in Somalia a humanitarian approach’. In The Depth of Turkish geopolitics in the AKP’s foreign policy: From Europe to an extended neighborhood, edited by Alessia Chiriatti, Emidio Diodato, Salih Dogan, Federico Donelli and Bahri Yilmaz et al., 35–51. Perugia: Università per Stranieri Press, 2015.

— and G Dentice. ‘Fluctuating Saudi and Emirati Alignment Behaviours in the Horn of Africa’. The International Spectator 55/1 (2020): 126–142.

DP World. ‘We Have Just Completed a 400m Quay and a New Extension at Berbera Port, Somaliland. Once Operational, It Will Increase the Terminal’s Capacity by

500,000 TEUs per Year, and Will Further Strengthen Berbera as a Major Regional Trade Hub Servicing the Horn of Africa’. Twitter. 10 August 2020. (https://twitter. com/DP_World/status/1292855504268664832)

—. ‘DP World Berbera’s Community Projects in Somaliland to Change Trajectory of Educational Opportunities’. 18 December 2019. (

Dua, J, A Warsame and A Shire. ‘Bosaso and the Gulf of Aden: Changing dynamics of a land-sea network’. London: Rift Valley Institute, 2020. (

Dubai 92. ‘UAE launches remote programme to train 1 million medics’. 12 August 2020. (

    1. ‘Ethiopian forces killed scores in June-July unrest, report says’. 1 January 2021. (

Ergin, Murat and Yağmur Karakaya. ‘Between neo-Ottomanism and Ottomania: navigating state-led and popular cultural representations of the past’. New Perspective on Turkey 56 (2017): 333–359.

Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce. ‘A Brief Overview of the Bilateral Trade Relationship between Ethiopia & the State of Qatar’. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce, no date. (

Ethiopian Monitor. ‘Ethiopia, Saudi Fund Sign $140mln Loan Deal’. 19 December 2019. (

Ethiopian News Agency. ‘Ethio-Qatar Business Forum Held in Doha’. 4 February 2020. (

Expertise France. ‘Djibouti Country Statement: Addressing Migrant Smuggling and Human Trafficking in East Africa’. Paris: Expertise France, September 2017.

Fana Broadcast Corporation. ‘Ethiopia Foils Terrorist Attack Plot On UAE Embassy in Addis Ababa’. 3 February 2021. ( ‘Abu Dhabi’s Efforts to Boost Local Agricultural Production’. February (

Feierstein, Gerald M. ‘The Impact of Middle East Regional Competition on Security and Stability in the Horn of Africa’. Policy paper. Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 18 August 2020.

Fenton-Harvey, Jonathan. ‘Qatar Seeks Increasing Development Projects in Africa’. Al-Monitor. 6 September 2019. (

Fick, Maggie and George Obulutsa. ‘UAE Plans Oil Pipeline from Ethiopia to Eritrea in Latest Horn of Africa Move’. Reuters. 10 August 2018 ( article/us-ethiopia-eritra-pipeline-idUSKBN1KV0VS)

Fulton, J. ‘China–UAE Relations in the Belt and Road Era’. Journal of Arabian Studies 9/2 (2019): 253–268.

Gambrell, Jon. ‘Djibouti seizes control of DP World’s container terminal’. AP News. 22 February 2018. (

Garowe Online. ‘Somalia: Puntland Ports Minister Grilled in Parliament over Bosaso Seaport Deal’. 30 July 2020. (

Gelila, Samuel. ‘City Municipality to Get Major Facelift’. Addis Fortune. 22 August 2020 (

GLMM Project. ‘UAE: Estimates of Population Residing in the UAE by Country of Citizenship (Selected Countries, 2014)’. Gulf Research Center. 17 December 2015. (

Global Construction Review. ‘Eagle Hills Unveils First Tower at Ethiopia’s $1.5bn La Gare Scheme’. 24 January 2020. (

Gökalp, Deniz. ‘The UAE’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: Claiming State Sovereignty, Regional Leverage and International Recognition’. CMI Working Paper. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, 2020. (

Gunter Michael M and Hakan Yavuz. ‘The October 2019 Turkish Incursion into Kurdish Syria: Its Background & Broader Implications’. Middle East Policy 27/1 (2020): 86–101.

Han, Aslan Davut and Selcuk Bahadir. ‘Africa in Turkey’s Foreign Policy Agenda: Trade, Economic and Military Cooperation’. Kwartalnik Naukowy Uczelni Vistula 4/50 (2016): 139–148.

Hazar, Numan. ‘Turkey’s Policy of Outreach to Africa: An Assessment’. Journal of Business Economics and Political Science 4/7 (2015): 3–11.

Hirt, Nicole and Abdulkader Saleh Mohammad. ‘The Lack of Political Space of the Eritrean Diaspora in the Arab Gulf and Sudan: Torn Between an Autocratic Home and Authoritarian Hosts’. Mashriq & Mahjar Journal of Middle East and North African Migration Studies 5/1 (2018): 101–126.

Huliaras, Asteris and Sophia Kalantzakos. ‘The Gulf States and the Horn of Africa: A New Hinterland?’. Middle East Policy 24/4 (2017): 63–73.

Husain, Shakir. ‘Nakheel to Open Djibouti Palace Hotel next Month’. Gulf News. 4 October 2006. (

International Crisis Group. ‘Intra-Gulf Competition in Africa’s Horn: Lessening the Impact’. Middle East Report No 206. Brussels/Nairobi: International Crisis Group, September 2019a.

—. ‘Keeping Ethiopia’s Transition on the Rails’. Africa Report No 283. Brussels/Nairobi: International Crisis Group, December 2019b.

—. ‘Somalia and the Gulf Crisis’. Africa Report No 260. Brussels/Nairobi: International Crisis Group, June 2018a.

—. ‘The United Arab Emirates in the Horn of Africa’. Middle East Briefing No 65. Brussels/Nairobi: International Crisis Group, November 2018b.

Kamrava, Mehran. Qatar: Small State, Big Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Kerr, Simeon. ‘Dubai pays price for festive parties as coronavirus cases surge’. Financial Times. 29 January 2021. (

Khaleej Times. ‘Advisory Council Outlines Plans for UAE Investors in Ethiopia’. 9 February 2020. (

Khalil, Zain. ‘رمحألا رحبلاب يركسع نواعتل دهمي تارامإلا عيبطت :ةيليئارسإ ةقيثو’ [Israeli Document: Emirati Normalization Paves Way for Military Cooperation in the Red Sea]’.

Anadolu Arabic. 18 August 2020. (الدول-العربية/وثيقة-إسرائيلية-تطبيع-الإمارات-يمهد-لتعاون-عسكري-بالبحر-الأحمر/1945000)

Kharas, Homi. ‘Trends and Issues in Qatari Foreign Aid’. Working paper. Doha: Silatech, November 2015.

Kifleyesus, Abbebe. ‘Women Who Migrate, Men Who Wait: Eritrean Labor Migration to the Arab Near East’. Northeast African Studies 12/1 (2012): 95–128.

Langan, Mark. ‘Virtuous power Turkey in sub-Saharan Africa: the ‘Neo-Ottoman’ challenge to the European Union’. Third World Quarterly 38/6 (2019): 1399–414.

Life & Peace Institute. ‘Alternatives for Conflict Transformation in Somalia’. Nairobi: Life & Peace Institute, 2014. (

Lons, Camille, Jonathan Fulton, Degang Sun and Naser Al-Tamimi. ‘China’s great game in the Middle East’. Policy Brief. London: European Council on Foreign Relations,

21 October 2019. ( Maasho, Aaron. ‘UPDATE 2-UAE to Give Ethiopia $3 Billion in Aid and Investments’. Reuters.

15 June 2018. (

Maclean, Ruth. ‘Has Africa been spared? Researchers say the numbers of cases and deaths are probably undercounted’. The New York Times. 2 January 2021. (

Mahmood, Omar S. ‘Competition, cooperation and security in the Red Sea’. East Africa Report 24. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies. August 2019.

Majid, N and K Abdurahman. ‘Mobility, Trust and Exchange: Somalia and Yemen’s Cross-border Maritime Economy’. London: Rift Valley Institute, 2019.

Meester, J, W van den Berg and H Verhoeven. ‘Riyal Politik: The political economy of Gulf investments in the Horn of Africa’. The Hague: Clingendael, April 2018.

Melvin, N. ‘The new external security politics of the Horn of Africa region’. SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security No. 2019/2 (April 2019a): 1–31.

—. ‘The foreign military presence in the Horn of Africa region’. SIPRI Background Paper. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, April 2019b.

Mesfin, Berouk. ‘Qatar’s diplomatic incursions into the Horn of Africa’. East Africa Report. Issue 8. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, November 2016.

Miller, Rory and Harry Verhoeven. ‘Overcoming Smallness: Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Strategic Realignment in the Gulf’. International Politics 57/1 (1 February 2020): 1–20.

Ministry of Information. ‘Press Statement’. Asmara, Eritrea: Ministry of Information, 12 June 2017. (

Miran, J. Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009.

Miriri, Duncan. ‘Impact of Ethiopia’s debt plan on private creditors not yet clear, says adviser’. Reuters. 2 February 2021. (

Mosley, J. ‘Ethiopia’s transition: Implications for the Horn of Africa & Red Sea region’. SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security 2020/5 (March 2020): 1–30. (https://www.

Mumbere, Daniel. ‘Ethiopia PM Seeks Qatari Investment’. Africanews. 20 March 2019 (

Obama, Barack. ‘A New Beginning’. Speech delivered in Cairo, Egypt. 4 June 2009. (

Open Briefing. ‘Intelligence Brief: Qatari Aid, Finance and Foreign Policy in Sudan’. London: Open Briefing, 21 February 2014. ( Qatari-aid-finance-and-foreign-policy-in-Sudan.pdf)

Oruç, Merve Şebnem. ‘Who is Disturbed by Turkey’s Presence on Sudan’s Suakin Island?’. Daily Sabah. 10 May 2019. (

Otieno Ong’ayo, Antony. ‘Diaspora Transnational Activities and Home Country Regime Conditions: Obstacles to Eritrean Diaspora Contribution to Local Development in Eritrea’. In Eritrea – Von der Befreiung zur Unterdrückung (Weltmission Heute, 78), edited by M Van Reisen and K Buck, 146–151. Hamburg: Evangelisches Missionswerk in Deutschland, 2015.

Özerdem, Alpaslan. ‘İnsaniyetçilik ve Türk Dış Politikası’. Uluslararası İlişkiler 13/52 (2016): 129–149.

Özkan, Mehmet. ‘A New Actor or Passer-By? The Political Economy of Turkey’s Engagement with Africa’. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 14/1 (2012): 113–133.

—. and Serhat Orakçı. ‘Viewpoint: Turkey as a “political” actor in Africa—an assessment of Turkish involvement in Somalia’. Journal of Eastern African Studies 9/2 (2015): 343–352.

Pharmaceutical Technology. ‘Julphar Manufacturing Facility, Addis Ababa’. February 2013. (

Qatar Fund for Development. ‘Qatar Fund for Development Supports Somali Economy’. 29 November 2017. (

—. ‘Qatar Fund for Development Annual Report 2016’ (QFFD, 2016). Doha: Qatar Fund for Development, 2016. (

Qatar Tribune. ‘Doha to Host Qatari-Sudanese Economic Forum next Month’. 7 December 2017. (

QNA. ‘Hassad to Invest $500 Million in Sudanese Agricultural Sector’. 28 June 2018. (

Rashid, Mohammed bin. ‘HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid on Twitter’. Twitter. 26 April 2019. ( Reuters.

‘Sudan, Qatar to Sign $4 Billion Deal to Manage Red Sea Port -Ministry’. 26 March 2018. (

Rossiter, Ash and Brendon J Cannon. ‘Re-examining the “Base”: The Political and Security Dimensions of Turkey’s Military Presence in Somalia’. Insight Turkey 21/1 (2019): 167–188.

Schaffer, Aaron. ‘Dubai Ports Giant Hires Ex-Israeli Intelligence Official to Land US Support for Sudan Bid’. Al-Monitor. 7 January 2020. ( originals/2020/01/dubai-ports-hire-ex-mossad-us-support-sudan-bid.html)

Shandy, Dianna and Shobha Das. ‘Diaspora Engagement and the Global Initiative on Somali Refugees–Emerging Possibilities’. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee, 2016.

Shiferaw, Lidet. ‘The role of Gulf states in peace and security and development in Sub-Saharan Africa’. IAI Working Papers 16. Rome: Instituto Afari Internazionali, 2016.

Shushan, Debra and Christopher Marcoux. ‘The Rise (and Decline?) of Arab Aid: Generosity and Allocation in the Oil Era’. World Development 39/11 (2011): 1969–1980.

Sıradağ, Abdurrahim. ‘Turkey–Africa alliance: Evolving patterns in security relations’. African Security Review 27/3–4 (2018): 308–325.

Snoj, Jure. ‘Population of Qatar by Nationality in 2019’. Priya D’Souza Communications. 15 August 2019. (

Styan, D. ‘The politics of ports in the Horn: War, peace and Red Sea rivalries’. African Arguments. 18 July 2018. (

Sucuoglu, Gizem and Jason Stearns. ‘Turkey in Somalia: Shifting Paradigms of Aid’. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs, 2016.

Sudan Tribune. ‘KHARTOUM Denies Reports about UAE’s Control of Port Sudan’. 27 April 2020. (

—. ‘Sudan Offers UAE’s Companies $59 Billion Investment Opportunities’. 15 May (

Tanchum, Micha‘el. ‘Turkey‘s String of Pearls: Turkey‘s Overseas Naval Installations Reconfigure the Security Architecture of Mediterranean-Red Sea Corridor’. Fokus. Vienna: Austria Institut für Europa und Sicherheitspolitik, 2019.

Tawane, Abdi A. ‘What the Gulf Crisis Means for Somalia’. International Policy Digest. 18 April 2018. (

Terrefe, B. ‘Urban layers of political rupture: the “new” politics of Addis Ababa’s megaprojects’. Journal of Eastern African Studies 14/3 (2020): 375–395. The Economist Intelligence Unit. ‘UAE Signs Deals with China under Belt and Road Initiative’. 8 May 2019. (

Thiessen, Chuck and Alpaslan Özerdem. ‘Turkey in Somalia: Challenging North/Western interventionism?’. Third World Quarterly 40/11 (2019): 1976–1995.

Todman, Will. ‘The Gulf Scramble for Africa: GCC States’ Foreign Policy Laboratory’. CSIS Briefs. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 20 November 2018. (

Ulrichsen, K. ‘Perceptions and Divisions in Security and Defense Structures in Arab Gulf states’. In Divided Gulf: Anatomy of a Crisis, edited by A Kreig, 19–36. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

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UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. ‘Sudan Situation Report’. 5 January 2021. ( van den Berg, W and J Meester. ‘Turkey in the Horn of Africa: Between the Ankara Consensus and the Gulf Crisis’. CRU Policy Brief. The Hague: Clingendael Institute, May 2019. (

Venosa, J. ‘Adapting to the new path: Khatmiyya Sufi authority, the al-Mirghani family, and Eritrean nationalism during British Occupation, 1941–1949’. Journal of Eastern African Studies 7/3 (2013): 413–431.

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Verhoeven, H. ‘The Gulf and the Horn: Changing Geographies of Security Interdependence and Competing Visions of Regional Order’. Civil Wars 20/3 (2018): 333–357.

Vertin, Z. ‘Great Power Rivalry in the Red Sea: China’s Experiment in Djibouti and Implications for the United States’. Doha: Brookings Doha Center, June 2020. (https://

—. ‘Red Sea Geopolitics: Six Plotlines to Watch’. Lawfare Institute (blog). December 2019a. (

—. ‘Red Sea Rivalries: The Gulf states are Playing a Dangerous Game in the Horn of Africa’. Snapshot. (blog). 15 January 2019. (https://www.

Wahab Aman, Abdulkadir and Zeynep Kaplan. ‘The distribution and determinants of Turkey’s FDI positions in Africa’. Turkish Economic Review 4/4 (2017): 400–413.

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Young, Karen. ‘Gulf Financial Aid and Direct Investment’. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 13 August 2020.

—. ‘A New Politics of GCC Economic Statecraft: The Case of UAE Aid and Financial Intervention in Egypt’. Journal of Arabian Studies 7/1 (2017): 113–136.

Ziadah, Rafeef. ‘Circulating Power: Humanitarian Logistics, Militarism, and the United Arab Emirates’. Antipode 51/5 (2019): 1684–1702.

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