1 M H Mukhtar, `The plight of the agro-pastoral society in Somalia’ , Review of African Political Economy, 23(70), 1996, pp 543±553.

2 Ibid.


3 Waldron & N Hasci, State of the art literature review on Somali refugees in the Horn of Africa, Refugees Studies Programme, Oxford University, and the Swedish International Development Authority, 1994.

4 M Doornbos & J Markakis, `Society and state in crisis: what went wrong in Somalia?’ , Review of African Political Economy, 59, 1994, pp 82-88; I M Lewis, Blood and Bones: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society, Lawrenceville: The Red Sea Press, 1994; and A. Simon, `Somalia: the structure of dissolution’ , in L Villalon & P Huxtable (eds), The African State at a Critical Juncture: Between Disintegration and Reconfiguration, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.

5 Doornbos & Markakis, “Society and state in crisis’, p 84.

6 A Samatar, Socialist Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988; Samatar, The State and Rural Transformation in Somalia, 1884± 1986, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

7 J A Mubarak, `The “hidden hand” behind the resilience of the stateless economy of Somalia’ , World Development, 25(12), 1997, pp 2027±2041; and World Bank, World Development Report 1997, Washington, DC: World Bank, 1977.

8 Mubarak, `The “hidden hand” ’, p 2028.

9 World Bank, “Somalia: country strategy paper’, Africa Division, World Bank, 1990; IMF `Somalia: a framework for the planning of long-term reconstruction and recovery’, 1993.

10 J G Gross, `Towards a taxonomy of failed states in the new world order: decaying Somalia, Liberia, Rwanda and Haiti’ , Third World Quarterly, 17(3), 1996, pp 455±471.

11 African Rights and Mines Advisory Group, `Violent deeds live on: landmines in Somalia and Somaliland’, December 1993; and J Maxted & A Zegeye, `State disintegration and human rights in Africa’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 38(1/2), 1997, pp 64±86.

12 H M Adam, `Formation and recognition of new states: Somaliland in contrast to Eritrea’, Review of African Political Economy, 59, 1994, pp 21±38.

13 Mukhtar, `The plight of the agro-pastoral society in Somalia’.

14 D D Laitin & S S Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987, p 69.

15 Lewis, Blood and Bones, p 150.

16 Ibid, p 152.

17 R Hitcock & H Hussein, “Agricultural and non-agricultural settlements for drought-afflicted pastoralists in Somalia’ , Disasters, 11(1), 1987, pp 30±39; and G Haaland & W Keddeman, `Poverty analysis: the case of rural Somalia’ , Economic Development and Cultural Change, 32(4), 1984, pp 843±860.

18 Mukhtar, `The plight of the agro-pastoral society in Somalia’.

19 Lewis, Blood and Bones, A Samatar, `Introduction and overview’, in Samatar (Ed), The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal, Boulder CO: Lynne Rienne, 1994.

20 K Cahaill, “The clinical face of famine in Somalia’, in K Cahill, Famine, 1986.

21 R Omaar, “Somaliland: one thorn bush at a time’, Current History, 1994, pp 232±236.

22 R H Green & J Jamal, `Somalia: paradoxes of private prosperity, poverty, pockets, volatile vulnerability and public pauperization, Report for UNICEF, Mogadishu, March 12, 1987.

23 “Secessionists in Somaliland are preparing to parade their declaration of independence at the UN conference’, Guardian, 1993.

24 A Bake, “UN bungles again’, New African, 1993, p 31.

25 R Gerson, `Why Somalis flee: synthesis of accounts of conflict experience in northern Somalia by Somali refugees, displaced persons and others’, Bureau for Refugee Programmes, Department of State, USA, 1989.

26 ‘A government at war with its own people’, Africa Watch (London), March 1990.

27 I Ahmed, `Understanding household food insecurity and famine conditions in rural Somaliland’, mimeo, Wye College, University of London, 1994, p 401.

28 Mukhtar, `The plight of the agro-pastoral society in Somalia’, pp 341-551.

29 Ibid, p 341.

30 While the Barre regime in 1987±88 claimed a population of over eight million, the actual (Swedish managed) census suggests 5.5 million four million in the south, 1.5 in the north. On reasonable guesstimates of births, deaths and cross border movements that suggest perhaps 4.5 million in the south and 1.8-2.0 million in Somaliland today.

31 P Hillmore, Observer, January 1995.

32 J Prendergast, Crisis Response: Humanitarian Band-Aids in Sudan and Somalia, London: Pluto Press, 1997.

33 M Bradbury, Aid Under Fire: Redefining Relief and Development Assistance in Unstable Situations, Geneva: The United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, 1995.

34 A few agencies, including UNICEF, returned fairly rapidly to the northwest and maintained a limited Mogadishu presence via Somali staff.

35 Netherlands Development Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid to Somalia, The Hague: Netherlands Development Cooperation, 1994, p 18.

36 I Lewis & J Mayall, `Somalia’, in J Mayall (ed), The New Interventionism 1991 – 1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

37 Life and Peace Institute Comprehensive report on lessons learned from the United Nations Operation in Somalia, 1995.

38 UNIDIR, Managing Arms in Peace Processes: Somalia. Geneva: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 1995.

39 As could be expected, some war leaders did not support the measures, nor did young men who saw the gun as their only capital asset and ticket to `productive’ self-employment.

40 M S Abdillahi, Somaliland NGOs: challenges and opportunities, London: Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR), 1997.

41 Netherlands Development Cooperation, Humanitarian Aids to Somalia.

42 Omaar, `Somaliland: one thorn bush at a time’, p 234.

43 A Farah & I Lewis, `Somalia: the roots of reconciliation. Peacemaking endeavors of contemporary lineage leaders: a survey of grassroots peace conferences in Somaliland’, ActionAid, London, 1993.

44 Omaar, `Somaliland: one thorn bush at a time’; and Farah & Lewis, `Somalia: the roots of reconciliation’.

45 Farah & Lewis, `The roots of reconciliation’.

46 Omaar, `Somaliland: one thorn bush at a time’, p 236.

47 M Bryden, `Somaliland and peace in the Horn of Africa: a situation report and analysis’, UN Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Addis Abba, 1995.

48 World Bank, `Somalia: country strategy paper’, p 10.

49 Doornbos & Markakis, `Society and state in crisis’; and Prendergast, Crisis Response.

50 Doornbos & Markakis, `Society and state in crisis’, p 87.

Ismail I Ahmed and Reginald Herbold Green are both at the Institute for Development Studies, Sussex University, Brighton BN 19RE, UK.

Third World Quarterly, Vol 20, No 1, pp 113 – 127, 1999

Published Online: 22 Sep 2010

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.